Solid Waste Emergency & Efficiency Project (SWEEP) is an emergency operation and will finance interventions that will be implemented over two phases:
(a) in the immediate emergency response phase, activities will aim to mitigate high flooding risks linked to the 2020 monsoon and caused b y accumulation of solid waste in the city’s natural drainage channels (nullahs), and public health risks linked to COVID-19; and
(b) in the medium-to-long-term phase, the Project will improve backbone SWM infrastructure and service delivery to address the underlying risk factors leading to recurring emergency flooding situations.
Component 1: Immediate Emergency Response Interventions
Interventions under this component will aim at mitigating high risks from flooding during the 2020 monsoon. Key interventions include cleaning of nullahs, safe disposal of waste cleared from nullahs, and communication and outreach activities.
Component 2: Development of SWM Backbone Infrastructure
This component will finance backbone infrastructure for the SWM sector, essential to the restoration of primary SWM functions in Karachi, from collection to disposal. The modernization of the SWM system will be achieved through a series of incremental improvements consisting of specific technologies and policies toward waste minimization, waste diversion, and value recovery, progressively bringing innovation to the SWM sector in Karachi. Key investments include the construction of new sanitary disposal cell at Jam Chakro dump site, construction/ upgrading of transfer stations, retrofitting of existing and construction of new kachra kundis, development of advanced waste treatment solutions, and provision of equipment and machinery to local councils and the Sindh Solid Waste Management Board (SSWMB).
Component 3: Project Management and Implementation Support
This component will support implementing agencies, primarily the Project Implementation Unit (PIU) under the SSWMB, to manage and implement activities and investments under SWEEP.
SWEEP will cover all six urban districts, and the rural district of Karachi.
1.2. Potential Social and Environmental Risks
The project will be prepared under the World Bank’s Environment and Social Framework (ESF) and is expected to have ‘High’ environmental and social risks. This is mainly due to potential serious occupational and community health and safety and environmental risks and impacts associated with, inter alia, cleaning of waste from nullahs, transport and temporary storage of potentially contaminated waste materials, and development of landfill cells and transfer stations. Major social risks are also due to encroachment issues (primarily along nullahs and on the Jam Chakro site); possible resettlement at project sites; significant role of the informal sector in waste-picking and recycling and the control of powerful groups; widespread involvement of migrants (including Afghans), children and minors in waste recovery at primary, secondary and tertiary waste disposal sites; exploitation of informal sector workers by middlemen and contractors managing dumpsites; and general issues related to vulnerability and exclusion.
Decisions on which public input is sought
Public input will be sought on location of and specifications of the temporary storage facilities at Jam Chakro, as well as on the location and specifications of the new sanitary landfill cell to be constructed at the same site. The community at Jam Chakro will particularly be consulted, along with urban/ SWM experts from the city who have written and researched on the sector.
Experts will also be consulted on the locations of additional transfer stations to be constructed, and once these locations are decided upon, the communities living in the surrounding localities, and along the relevant transportation routes, will be consulted on the management and maintenance of the stations, operational schedules, etc. The same is true for kachra kundis.
The development of modern landfilling capacity at Dhabeji (a greenfield location) will require a long-term plan of community involvement including discussions on design of the proposed site, and facilities to be provided there, both for waste disposal and for SWM workers.
This stakeholder engagement plan (SEP) is based on a reading of secondary data and literature, consultations with experts in the field of urban development, particularly in Karachi; consultations with government institutions, and on focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews conducted in communities and with waste vendors. Due to the exigencies of COVID-19, the number of FGDs had to be limited, and had to be held outdoors in public places, which was not conducive to women’s participation. This was particularly true of consultations in low income areas in dense neighborhoods. Consultations held with communities outside the main city included women, as they were more comfortable meeting out of doors. Similarly, the field team could not visit some particularly densely populated areas, such as the informal settlement of Machar Colony, due to fears of crowding during consultations. For this location, they resorted to interviews with community practitioners
working in the area. Given these constraints, the current document can be considered a preliminary SEP, which will be updated and disclosed within 60 days of project effectiveness. In general, the SEP is a living document and can be updated as the project proceeds, depending on requirements.